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(no subject) [Jan. 18th, 2006|07:38 pm]
THE GONZO JOURNALS
Madison: federalist, 4th pres, ‘father of the constitution’, wrote detailed notes at the constitutional convention, and wrote the bill of rights

Sherman: signed all three documents [dec. of indep, articles, bill of rights], from Connecticut, ‘great compromiser,’ settled Congress dispute between Jersey and Virginia – house of reps= according to population, senate=equal # (2)

Mason: ‘loved liberty hated politics,’ anti-federalist, hated the slave trade, didn’t sign the constitution bc slave trade was on it, wrote the VA Bill of Rights that influenced the Bill of Rights.

Federalists: strong central govt, broad interpretation of the constitution, few state rights – Led by Alexander Hamilton

Anti-Federalists: limited central govt, more state rights, strict interpretation of the constitution, people should govern themselves, communities should vote on laws for themselves.

Federalist papers- 85 essays written by Hamilton, Madison, and Jay supporting the federalist view and the ratification of the constitution. Mainly written to New Yorkers in the Independent to gain more supporters in the state.

Right: limitation on any govt. ruling action

Est. clause: Amend I govt shall make no est. religion or prohibit the free exercise of religious practice.

Freedom of Expression: Amend I freedom of press, speech, petition. Limitations include time at public meetings so everyone will have a chance to speak.

Linked rights: the various freedoms and rights presented in each amendment [ please look them over]

Amendment II- right to bear arms and militia (volunteer armed force aka police force)

Due Process: Amendment V – life, liberty, property shall not be taken away except for lawful reasons

Habeas corpus- the judge will read your crime

Search and seizure: Amendment IV

Exclusionary Rule: evidence illegally seized can not be presented/ accepted in a court.

Miranda Rights: created because of the Miranda v. AZ (1966) case where a man stole $8 and was not read his right to a lawyer; Miranda eventually admitted to raping a girl but that confession could not be used since he was not read his rights. They read as : you have the right to remain silent, anything you do or say will be used against you in the court of law, and you have the right to counsel (lawyer)”

Bail: $ given to the courts to temporarily release someone from jail and assure that they will show up in court

John Jay: wrote for the ‘federalist papers’ he was not a delegate in the constitutional convention, rather he was a diplomat and judge. He served as secretary of foreign affairs for John Adams.

Howard Taft: president who was in the supreme crt

John Marshall: 4th chief justice app. By John Adams he legitimized the judiciary branch and gave power to the court to decide congressional acts in Marbury v. Madison

Appeals Process: local>>state>>9th district crt appeals>>Supreme Crt

Cruel and Unusual Punishment: Amendment VIII

Cap. Punishment and the Constitution: 1966-1976 cap. Punishment was illegal [bc it ‘violated the 8th amendment] currently 36 out of 50 states have cap. Punishment

Thurgood Marshall: 1st African American judge , Clarence Thomas is the 2nd

# of ways to amend the constitution: 2 (by congress or state convention)
# of amendments: 26
# of amendments proposed since 1789: 3,000
Enumerated rights: Amendment IX The enumeration in the Constitution, of certain rights, shall not be construed to deny or disparage others retained by the people.
Prohibiton: 18th Amenment 1919, repealed 21st amendment 1933 (state convention)

Colonial reaction to the Bill of Rights: many feared the Bill because they felt that these rights would be interpetred in a way that would limit these rights as THE ONLY rights Americans had thus contrain their liberty.

# of Supreme Court justices: 9 [1 judge 8 associates]
Justices are appointed by the pres, confirmed by the senate
Certification: lower court sends questions to a higher court
Certiorari: writ from a higher court to a lower court demanding legal documents for review
Appeals: challenging a judgement- bringing a case to a higher court
Chief Justice responsibilities: present the case, control debate, appoint the writer of the opinion
REVIEW THE 9 CASES. Good luck.
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(no subject) [Jan. 18th, 2006|04:35 pm]
THE GONZO JOURNALS

this is the old stuff...i'll have the new stuff up later tonight (the new stuff begins with Madison and ends with US v. Nixon)

Constitution Test

 

Countries involved in regime building: Britain, Spain, France

 

Constitution Definition: “Supreme Law of the Land” 1) set of customs, traditions, rules, and laws that sets forth the way a govt. is organized. 2) A constitution grants powers to the govt. and also limits authority 3) defines the structure of the govt. 4) explains the relationship of the govt and the governed.

 

Constitution type of law: oral law, fundamental law, statutory law (local laws)

 

 

William Laud: Head of the Church of England, “Divine Right” rulers receive authority from God and are answerable only to God, not the people. Govt + Church=work together.

 

Abigail Adams: “Remember the ladies” she wrote to her husband John Adams, urging him not to forget women’s rights while writing the new govt. She wanted freedom for women and slaves.

 

Charlotte Corday: female supporter of the French Revolution strong patriot, member of the group Girondins, and she assassinated the ruthless leader Marat who led the Reign of Terror in France. 

 

Ben Banneker: African American who believed slaves and free blacks should have full rights as citizens under the constitution. He wrote many letters to Thomas Jefferson urging him to secure equal rights, saying that it would be illogical to have enslavement after the war with Britain.

 

Simon de Montfort: Earl of Leicester year 1263, and Englishmen who lead the 2nd Baron’s war against Henry III because he refused changes to the Magna Carta. Simon created the 1st parliament where towns were represented.

 

Hiawatha: Chief Onondaga, peaceful man of the Iroquois tribe he was one of the creators of the Iroquois Leagues that was in association with the American govt. They made decisions to end disputes among warring tribes based on unanimous agreement. Women had a lot of power in the Iroquois League.

 

Thomas Hobbes: He believed that a monarchy is the best form of govt and that it protects people from selfishness, and that humans were born naturally wicked.

                                                                                                                  

 

Giuseppe Mazzini: “Young Italy” founder/leader for the liberation of Italy. He advocated nationalisms and bringing Italy back to its renaissance period.

 

Voltaire: “Voice of Reason” he was an exile in France because he insulted noblemen and spoke against religious persecution.  He wanted to see parliament have equality in representation and he was anti-monarchy.

 

Powers and Limitations of the Articles of Confederation ‘AoC’: The govt were allowed to borrow $, coin $, direct foreign affairs, declare war, make peace, build a navy, ask states for $ and men for an army, create post offices, and regulate measures and weights.

 

The govt were NOT allowed to raise $ by taxes, enforce agreements with foreign affairs, control trade btw states, provide an independent executive (president), provide a court system, all amendments had to be unanimously agreed upon by all states, every state had their own govt.

 

Articles – number of states needed to pass laws: 9 out of 13 states must vote in favor of it. Amending the AoC was to be unanimously voted upon by every state.

 

1780’s relationships between American and other Countries: BRITAIN- refused to send official diplomat to America, closed West Indies (merchant trade route) to America, and plotted with Native Americans to harass the Americans. FRANCE- wanted their loans paid back yet congress did not have the power to pay them back. SPAIN- claimed land given to America by Britain and plotted with Native Americans in the North Appalachian mts.

 

1780’s problems between states: boundaries (the states were no surveyed and many states were greedy over land), levy taxes from other states on goods, money was printed differently therefore business trade was difficult.

 

Shay’s Rebellion

 

Who: Led by Daniel Shay a veteran of the Revolutionary War and a farmer from Pelham, MA.  Why: He lead this assault because many farmers from MA who had fought during the revolution returned to their farms in poor conditions faced with no reparations from congress (which had been promised— even while waiting for their money from the govt, many farmers bought animals and farming tools to get their farms back on track), the price of corn fell, increased property tax, and head tax that made the poor pay the same rate as the rich. *during that time paper money was worthless, so many farmers were paying their debts with corn, meat and other goods—yet tax collectors only wanted hard cash meaning coins.

What did these farmers do: 1st made a list of grievances that they would petition to legislation [taxes too high, shortage of cash money, court & lawyer fees too high, state officials are being paid too much, and MA’s state capital Boston should move inland] 

*their grievances were ignored! So they decided to march to Worchester’s courts to prevent them from opening so they may not be arrested due to debt.

Take Charge part I: Since their petition was ignored, 200 men charged Worchester’s courts, only to be lectured by Judge Ward on the dangers of rioting— yet, he adjourned the court session.  From the farmers’ riot at the courthouse, the judges deemed farmers’ goods could be used as payment for taxes, but all other grievances were ignored. Also the judge passes a “Riot Act” that called for those who marched against the courts to be arrested and thrown in jail.

Take Charge part II: Because their grievances were once again ignored [with one exception the food for tax complaint] Farmers once again marched and rioted at the courthouses. This time the farmers demanded the court system to do away with high fees court fees, they were all wearing sprigs in their hats a symbol of their rebellion.

Take Charge part III: With the leadership of Daniel Shay’s, the farmers rushed to Springfield so they may seize the arsenal with weapons, however there were several hundred militia men awaiting them and following the farmers every step.  At the arsenal, the militia men fired cannons at the farmers killing 3-4 men.  This led the farmers dispersing and escaping the chaos. About 150 men had been taken prisoners by the govt.  Sam Adams, a former revolutionary and “instructor” to farmers on how to riot and hold “tea parties” was shocked by the upheaval on part of the farmers. He wanted the farmers to suffer great punishments— ironic isn’t it?

Conclusion: Many farmers were sentenced to be hanged to death, many were pardoned, and Shay’s had a bounty out for him.  Fortunately, John Hancock had been appointed governor to which he cancelled the death sentences, lowered taxes, released debtors from jail, and passé many acts to alleviate the grievances of the farmers. The following month, the Constitutional Convention in Philadelphia revised the AoC because Shay’s Rebellion provided proof that their system of govt was weak and needed reform.

 

Constitutional Convention

Where: Independence Hall, Philadelphia

What did they discuss: A way to produce a national government that would be more than the virtually powerless government the United States currently had— ultimately revising the AoC, and instilling a national constitution.  *prior to the Constitutional Convention, there was the Annapolis Convention with Hamilton and Madison including 5 representatives from different states,  that discussed trade issues and consequently called for the Constitutional Convention

Who didn’t show up: Rhode Island, John Adams, Thomas Jefferson, Thomas Paine, Sam Adams, and Patrick Henry

Who did show up: 55 delegates from 12 states including Benjamin Franklin, George Washington, and James Madison.

Chairman: George Washington

 

Virginia Plan: Introduced by Gov. Randolph known as the “Randolph Plan” each state is represented by its population and each representative has 1 vote. [Favored by large states] 

 

New Jersey Plan: Introduced by William Patterson each state has an equal number of representatives and each representative has 1 vote [Favored by small states]

 

 

 

Roger Sherman of Connecticut: “That the proportion of suffrage in the 1st. branch should be according to the respective numbers of free inhabitants; and that in the second branch or Senate, each State should have one vote and no more." 

House of Reps= representatives from each state based on population. Senate= equal representation

 

Commerce Compromise: Delegates from the North and the South disagreed upon how slaves should be counted. Population was important because it determined  1) how many reps would be in Congress 2) how much tax would go to the federal govt. The south wanted slaves to be counted for population so that they could have an appropriate amount of reps on congress, but not to be counted for taxation purposes. The north argues that slaves were property for people of the south; therefore slaves should be counted for taxes but not for representation in congress- the complete opposite of the south.

Resolution: 3/5 compromise slaves were to be counted as 3/5 a person.

 

VOCAB

Liberty: state of being free from arbitrary control – according to our founding fathers liberty is a fundamental right of mankind, but not anarchy! Citizens are at liberty to do what they have the right to do.

Bicameral: two houses. House of reps and Senate

Unicameral: one legislative body – Nebraska the only state with unicameral legislation 

Checks and Balances: each branch of govt exercises a check on the actions of others

Separation of Powers: Executive – President Legislative—Congress (2 parts House of Reps and Senate) Judiciary – Supreme Court and nationwide system of courts and appeals

 

7 Articles on the Constitution

 

Legislative: House of Reps 435 [2 yr term, must be 25 yrs, may propose a law to raise revenue, and can impeach the president.] Senate 100 [ 6 yr term, 30 yrs old, approve judges-ambassadors-govt positions, approve treaties, and can bring the president to an impeachment TRIAL. Congress [law making power, declare war, propose amendments, 2/3 can vote on a bill if president veto’s it]

 

Executive: 4 yr term, 35 yrs old, can veto laws, make treaties with foreign countries, nominate judges to Sup. Crt- govt positions-ambassadors-Cabinet, and Commander in Chief of military forces.

 

Judiciary: life span, declare laws unconstitutional, settle disputes btw different states, settle disputes involving the USA, and Chief Justice presides over president’s impeachment trial. 

 

John Roberts Final Vote: 78 [in favor] – 22 [opposed]

Woman currently nominated to SC: Harriet Miers

 

Process of Becoming SC Justice

  1. President selects nominee for court
  2. President writes nomination and sends to the Senate, who then send it to the Judiciary Committee ( 18 members split between both parties, who decide, based on his or her qualifications, to recommend him or her to Senate for the final vote)
  3. After going through a background check by the FBI, the nominee goes to Senate for the ‘floor hearing’ to be confirmed or rejected.
  4. After the debate the Senate votes or if the opposing party decides to reject him or her they perform a filibuster (3/5 of the Senate must vote to end filibuster)

 

Retiring Justices: William Rehnquist (thyroid cancer) dies 9-4-2005 and Sandra Day O’Connor retires to take care of her ill husband.

 

  • Liberal : LEFT WING DEMOCRAT broad: showing or characterized by broad-mindedness; "a broad political stance"; "generous and broad sympathies"; "a liberal newspaper"; "tolerant of his opponent's opinions"
  • having political or social views favoring reform and progress
  • tolerant of change; not bound by authoritarianism, orthodoxy, or tradition
  • a person who favors a political philosophy of progress and reform and the protection of civil liberties
  • Conservative: RIGHT WING REPUBLICAN
  • The political view that things should stay the way things are. Belief in little or no socialized spending.
  • Traditionally, conservative means to favor things as they are and to be cautious. To be conservative politically is to respect traditional institution and distrust government solutions to problems

 

PAC’s: Political Action Committee

People with Shared interests who pool their $ to influence policy making.

4,000 PAC’s (business, labor union, ideology)

Pro—abolishing PAC’s would restrict a person’s right to give money to a candidate in regards to their support (basically infringing our right to free speech and the constitution!)

Con—Buy$ influence, candidates are faced with an inequality in spending. 

Due to Watergate [1974] a new rule was implemented to limit $ from people and PAC’s

$1,000 per candidate per election

As of 2006 $2,000 per candidate per election.

 

Soft Money: $ from unions, people, and corporations to NON-FEDERAL accounts of national parties.

*backdoor way of supporting the candidate by contributing lots of $$$$

** demands favors and influence from candidate

 

Tillman Act: 1907 corporations and national banks may not contribute directly to any presidential or congressional campaign!

 

Public Funding: govt. controlled, our tax dollar$

 

McCain (R-AZ) and Feingold (D- WS) proposed to lower and equalize spending in elections so that candidates will not be ‘beholden’ to special interest groups, and PAC’s and the rich will have less influence.

 

BUT--- that means then our tax dollar$ will support candidates we do not like and it discriminates against minor party people, like the Reformed or Green party candidates in an election. 

 

THIS BILL DIDN’T PASS SENATE! IT ONLY PASSED THE HOUSE. 

(Read the article for more information)

 

Candidates Personal Money: Steve Forbes (inherits billions of $) Ross Perot (self made billionaire) both ran for president.

 

Pro: less special interest influence

Con: only the rich have the real advantage

 

Patriotism: Either you are patriotic or not. The House will soon vote on whether or not burning the flag is desecration.

 

England has a very powerful tabloid press

 

THE MEDIA & POLITICS

·        THE PRESS concentrates on the scandalous information only

·        Or are THE PRESS merely a watch dog, filtering information on the govt?

 

 

Brief History

·        JFK president 75% trusted govt. TODAY only 25% trust the govt.

·        George Washington has been targeted by the press

·        The ‘tabloid’ media began 100 yrs ago

·        Watergate (Bernstein and Woodward) broke the news that the Republican Party [Nixon] wire tapped into the Democratic convention.

 

Today

·        Serious issues=BORING

·        People under 30yrs old do not read the paper

·        News is entertainment bc of the graphics, short segments, reporting as sexual icons and comedians.

·        In dept coverage on news NY TIME & CSPAN

·        1972-1992 stories regarding domestic and foreign questions being asked by Congress dropped heavily.

·        What Is newsworthy? BEHAVOIR THAT EFFECTS POLICY MAKING, PERSONAL LIVES, AND USA’s IMAGE TO THE WORLD.

 

Campaign games

·        Spin doctors: a public relations person who tries to forestall negative publicity by publicizing a favorable interpretation of the words or actions of a company or political party or famous person; "his title is Director of Communications but he is just a spin doctor"

·        1992 Clinton/ Bush election – 60% negative media

·        1996 Republican Primary 3:1 negative comments to positive

·        Negative tones in elections contribute to the decline in public confidence.

 

1968 42 seconds uninterrupted speech

1992 7.3 seconds of uninterrupted speech.

 

War Room

  • Primary election: election for presidential representation
  • 1994 Democrats running against Clinton – TOSONGAS AND BROWN
  • James Carvelle: Clinton’s political consultant >>  very liberal and head strong
  • George Stephanopoulos: Director of Communications >> young, spoke on Clinton’s character
  • Character was important in this election, the Vietnam draft letter was concealed which showed poorly on Clinton’s character also the J. Flowers affair.

 

 

POLL AD’S

-         President Johnson ran against Goldwater in 1964. Goldwater was pro-military, conservative from AZ—to go against Goldwater’s beliefs, Johnson developed the Daisy ad against nuclear weapons.

-         1988 To go against Dukakis a democrat Gov. of MA, Bush made the Willy Horton ad about a convicted murderer being released for a weekend break and then goes on to rape a woman while on his outing.

-         1952 Eisenhower (WWII general) was the first to use the TV for political ad’s he went to a NYC studio and filmed 40 segments in one day to be aired throughout his election. He ended up winning the election.

-         1880 Adams’s supporters called Jefferson a radical anti-Christian who would lead reign of terror. Jefferson’s supporters called Adam’s a wanna-be-king and a traitor.

 

Types of Polls

BENCHMARK-          beginning of a campaign to provide a baseline  and measure to know where people stand.

TRACKING AND BUSHFIRE- fast surveys done at the near end of a campaign to determine what voter’s positions and reactions

PUSH- polls at the end of an election to influence voters (unethical)

EXIT – on Election Day as people leave the voting booths to give an early indication of the election results. This aids in voter apathy ( example: people will see the results and wonder why they should bother to vote if the person they want to win is coming in dead last)

 

Franklin Delano Roosevelt: He was paralyzed from polio. Democrat Pres. During the great depression helped our country get through it by developing social programs. Had numerous affairs, Eleanor Roosevelt was his wife and cousin [distant]

 

Radicle: extremist: (used of opinions and actions) far beyond the norm; "extremist political views"; "radical opinions on education"; "an ultra conservative"

 

Populist: common person is oppressed by the "elite" in society, and that the instruments of the State need to be grasped from this self-serving elite and used for the benefit and advancement of the people as a whole. The ideal projected by populism is that of reaching out to ordinary people, talking about their economic and social concerns, and appealing to their common sense. ...

 

Libertarian: Libertarianism is a philosophy based on the principle that individuals should be allowed complete freedom of action as long as they do not infringe on the same freedom of others. This is usually taken by libertarians to mean that no one may initiate coercion, which they define as the use of physical force, the potential use (threat) of such, or the use of fraud to prevent individuals from having willful use of their person or property. ...

 

  • Reactionary: extremely conservative an extreme conservative; an opponent of progress or liberalism

QUALITIES OF PUBLIC OPINION

 

  1. intensity
  2. fluidity- extent of which public opin. Changes over time
  3. stability- p.o remains constant
  4. latent public opinion- unexpressed political opinions
  5. relevance- extent of issue’s concern (ex: 90’s/2000 immigration)
  6. consensus and division- everyone thinks terrorism is bad= consensus. Some people think abortion is a private matter others don’t = division

 

*make sure you know what the platforms for each party are: like what do the republicans think of social security as opposed to the democrats (on one of your worksheets)

 

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(no subject) [Nov. 21st, 2005|02:31 am]
THE GONZO JOURNALS
Chocolate Bar: many farmers are getting benefits from selling their chocolate goods to fair trade orgs. Some of that extra money is set into projects that benefit the whole community.

Banana: it is the 4th largest valued crop in the world, 10 million people depend on the fruit for a living, the banana price has recently fell 40%, small farmers of banana must sell their crop to a middlemen receiving as little as 1.5 cents a pound. These poor wages have consequences; the families that live off these wages do not have enough money to pay for their basic necessities of life.

Solidarity through fair trade: Solidarity binds there poor and the rich, it is a call to be consciously aware of what we are buying and what has been fairly traded. Pope John Paul II said “the goods of creation are meant for all” we must have a special concern for the poor! The criteria for fair trade as follows: fair prices, fair wages, good work conditions, workers rights, and environmentally friendly.

Church Solidarity: WE ARE ONE HUMAN FAMILY, it is a firm commitment to the common good. INTERDEPENCE! Not independence For the followers of Jesus, yes is it a responsibility for the fate of the world’s poor. This commitment to global solidarity belongs especially to the LAY PEOPLE>>we can influence the government and legislation.
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(no subject) [Nov. 13th, 2005|03:28 pm]
THE GONZO JOURNALS

History Team Bush

 

8 Important Departments

  1. Treasury- John Snow (2nd Term) deals with tax revenue [IRS], prints money, stamps, mints coins, and figures out how much to spend in the war against terror.
  2. Defense- Donald Rumsfield (1st & 2nd Term) Head of Navy, Army, Marine Corps, Air Force; conducts weapons research, figures out new weapon strategies, overlooks army bases worldwide.
  3. Interior- Gale Norton (1st & 2nd Term) she handles public parks, forests, grasslands, fish, wildlife, and the Bureau of Indian Affairs.
  4. Agriculture- (1st and 2nd Term) Mike Johannes assists farmers, food inspections, hands out food stamps, directs school lunch programs, and works to control livestock diseases and crop diseases.
  5. Commerce- (2nd Term) Carlos Gutierrez advises American businesses and industries, patents inventions, and conducts the census.
  6. Labor- (1st and 2nd Term) Elaine Choa enforces labor laws, runs job employment and training programs, provides stats on prices-employment-inflation.
  7. Energy “Santa Clause”- (2nd Term) Sam Bodman knows all the USA’s nuclear weapons secretes, promotes the use and conservation of energy, and is developing new sources of energy.  *he doesn’t have much experience in energy policy, but he is a good business man* (also he is working hard to stop USA’s reliance on foreign oil by strengthening our own country’s energy)
  8. Education- (2nd) Margaret Spellings (she used to be an advisor of Domestic Policy) assists elementary, secondary, and college education, she researches educational practices, promotes equal access in the nation’s schools, also she was the chief architect in No Child Left Behind.

 

 

CABINET

    •  President- George W. Bush 1,2
    • VP- Dick Cheney 1,2
    • Sec. of State Condoleezza Rice 1, 2 (1st Term as Natl. Security Advisor)
    • Sec. of Treasury- John Snow 2
    • Sec. of Defense- Don Rumsfield 1,2
    •  Attorney General -Alberto Gonzales 2
    • Sec. of Interior- Gale Norton 1,2
    • Sec. of Agriculture- Mike Johannes 1,2
    • Sec of. Commerce -Carlos Gutierrez 2
    • Sec. of Labor- Elaine Choa 1,2
    • Sec. of Health and Human Services- Mike Leavitt 2
    • Sec. of Transportation- Alphonso Jackson 2
    • Sec. of Energy Sam- Bodwan 2
    • Sec. of Education- Margaret Spellings 2
    • Sec. of Veteran Affairs- Jim Nicholson 2
    • Sec. of Homeland Security Michael Chertoff
    • WH Chief of Staff -Andrew Card 1, 2
    • Administrator of Environmental Protection Agency- Stephen Johnson 2
    • Natl. Security Advisor- Stephen Hadley 2
    • Dir. Of CIA- Porter Goss 2
    • Chairman of Joint Chief of Staff- General Peter Pace 2
    • Dir. Of Management and Budget- Josh Bolten 2
    • US Trade Rep- Rob Portman 2
    • Dir. Of FBI- Robert Mueller 1,2
    • Dir. Natl. Intelligence- John Negroponte 2
    • Senior Advisor/Deputy Chief of Staff- Karl Rove 1, 2
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(no subject) [Oct. 24th, 2005|05:29 pm]
THE GONZO JOURNALS

History Exam

 

John Roberts Final Vote: 78 [in favor] – 22 [opposed]

Woman currently nominated to SC: Harriet Miers

 

Process of Becoming SC Justice

  1. President selects nominee for court
  2. President writes nomination and sends to the Senate, who then send it to the Judiciary Committee ( 18 members split between both parties, who decide, based on his or her qualifications, to recommend him or her to Senate for the final vote)
  3. After going through a background check by the FBI, the nominee goes to Senate for the ‘floor hearing’ to be confirmed or rejected.
  4. After the debate the Senate votes or if the opposing party decides to reject him or her they perform a filibuster (3/5 of the Senate must vote to end filibuster)

 

Retiring Justices: William Rehnquist (thyroid cancer) dies 9-4-2005 and Sandra Day O’Connor retires to take care of her ill husband.

 

  • Liberal : LEFT WING DEMOCRAT broad: showing or characterized by broad-mindedness; "a broad political stance"; "generous and broad sympathies"; "a liberal newspaper"; "tolerant of his opponent's opinions"
  • having political or social views favoring reform and progress
  • tolerant of change; not bound by authoritarianism, orthodoxy, or tradition
  • a person who favors a political philosophy of progress and reform and the protection of civil liberties
  • Conservative: RIGHT WING REPUBLICAN
  • The political view that things should stay the way things are. Belief in little or no socialized spending.
  • Traditionally, conservative means to favor things as they are and to be cautious. To be conservative politically is to respect traditional institution and distrust government solutions to problems

 

PAC’s: Political Action Committee

People with Shared interests who pool their $ to influence policy making.

4,000 PAC’s (business, labor union, ideology)

Pro—abolishing PAC’s would restrict a person’s right to give money to a candidate in regards to their support (basically infringing our right to free speech and the constitution!)

Con—Buy$ influence, candidates are faced with an inequality in spending. 

Due to Watergate [1974] a new rule was implemented to limit $ from people and PAC’s

$1,000 per candidate per election

As of 2006 $2,000 per candidate per election.

 

Soft Money: $ from unions, people, and corporations to NON-FEDERAL accounts of national parties.

*backdoor way of supporting the candidate by contributing lots of $$$$

** demands favors and influence from candidate

 

Tillman Act: 1907 corporations and national banks may not contribute directly to any presidential or congressional campaign!

 

Public Funding: govt. controlled, our tax dollar$

 

McCain (R-AZ) and Feingold (D- WS) proposed to lower and equalize spending in elections so that candidates will not be ‘beholden’ to special interest groups, and PAC’s and the rich will have less influence.

 

BUT--- that means then our tax dollar$ will support candidates we do not like and it discriminates against minor party people, like the Reformed or Green party candidates in an election. 

 

THIS BILL DIDN’T PASS SENATE! IT ONLY PASSED THE HOUSE. 

(Read the article for more information)

 

Candidates Personal Money: Steve Forbes (inherits billions of $) Ross Perot (self made billionaire) both ran for president.

 

Pro: less special interest influence

Con: only the rich have the real advantage

 

Patriotism: Either you are patriotic or not. The House will soon vote on whether or not burning the flag is desecration.

 

England has a very powerful tabloid press

 

THE MEDIA & POLITICS

·        THE PRESS concentrates on the scandalous information only

·        Or are THE PRESS merely a watch dog, filtering information on the govt?

 

 

Brief History

·        JFK president 75% trusted govt. TODAY only 25% trust the govt.

·        George Washington has been targeted by the press

·        The ‘tabloid’ media began 100 yrs ago

·        Watergate (Bernstein and Woodward) broke the news that the Republican Party [Nixon] wire tapped into the Democratic convention.

 

Today

·        Serious issues=BORING

·        People under 30yrs old do not read the paper

·        News is entertainment bc of the graphics, short segments, reporting as sexual icons and comedians.

·        In dept coverage on news NY TIME & CSPAN

·        1972-1992 stories regarding domestic and foreign questions being asked by Congress dropped heavily.

·        What Is newsworthy? BEHAVOIR THAT EFFECTS POLICY MAKING, PERSONAL LIVES, AND USA’s IMAGE TO THE WORLD.

 

Campaign games

·        Spin doctors: a public relations person who tries to forestall negative publicity by publicizing a favorable interpretation of the words or actions of a company or political party or famous person; "his title is Director of Communications but he is just a spin doctor"

·        1992 Clinton/ Bush election – 60% negative media

·        1996 Republican Primary 3:1 negative comments to positive

·        Negative tones in elections contribute to the decline in public confidence.

 

1968 42 seconds uninterrupted speech

1992 7.3 seconds of uninterrupted speech.

 

War Room

  • Primary election: election for presidential representation
  • 1994 Democrats running against Clinton – TOSONGAS AND BROWN
  • James Carvelle: Clinton’s political consultant >>  very liberal and head strong
  • George Stephanopoulos: Director of Communications >> young, spoke on Clinton’s character
  • Character was important in this election, the Vietnam draft letter was concealed which showed poorly on Clinton’s character also the J. Flowers affair.

 

 

POLL AD’S

-         President Johnson ran against Goldwater in 1964. Goldwater was pro-military, conservative from AZ—to go against Goldwater’s beliefs, Johnson developed the Daisy ad against nuclear weapons.

-         1988 To go against Dukakis a democrat Gov. of MA, Bush made the Willy Horton ad about a convicted murderer being released for a weekend break and then goes on to rape a woman while on his outing.

-         1952 Eisenhower (WWII general) was the first to use the TV for political ad’s he went to a NYC studio and filmed 40 segments in one day to be aired throughout his election. He ended up winning the election.

-         1880 Adams’s supporters called Jefferson a radical anti-Christian who would lead reign of terror. Jefferson’s supporters called Adam’s a wanna-be-king and a traitor.

 

Types of Polls

BENCHMARK-          beginning of a campaign to provide a baseline  and measure to know where people stand.

TRACKING AND BUSHFIRE- fast surveys done at the near end of a campaign to determine what voter’s positions and reactions

PUSH- polls at the end of an election to influence voters (unethical)

EXIT – on Election Day as people leave the voting booths to give an early indication of the election results. This aids in voter apathy ( example: people will see the results and wonder why they should bother to vote if the person they want to win is coming in dead last)

 

Franklin Delano Roosevelt: He was paralyzed from polio. Democrat Pres. During the great depression helped our country get through it by developing social programs. Had numerous affairs, Eleanor Roosevelt was his wife and cousin [distant]

 

Radicle: extremist: (used of opinions and actions) far beyond the norm; "extremist political views"; "radical opinions on education"; "an ultra conservative"

 

Populist: common person is oppressed by the "elite" in society, and that the instruments of the State need to be grasped from this self-serving elite and used for the benefit and advancement of the people as a whole. The ideal projected by populism is that of reaching out to ordinary people, talking about their economic and social concerns, and appealing to their common sense. ...

 

Libertarian: Libertarianism is a philosophy based on the principle that individuals should be allowed complete freedom of action as long as they do not infringe on the same freedom of others. This is usually taken by libertarians to mean that no one may initiate coercion, which they define as the use of physical force, the potential use (threat) of such, or the use of fraud to prevent individuals from having willful use of their person or property. ...

 

  • Reactionary: extremely conservative an extreme conservative; an opponent of progress or liberalism

QUALITIES OF PUBLIC OPINION

 

  1. intensity
  2. fluidity- extent of which public opin. Changes over time
  3. stability- p.o remains constant
  4. latent public opinion- unexpressed political opinions
  5. relevance- extent of issue’s concern (ex: 90’s/2000 immigration)
  6. consensus and division- everyone thinks terrorism is bad= consensus. Some people think abortion is a private matter others don’t = division

 

*make sure you know what the platforms for each party are: like what do the republicans think of social security as opposed to the democrats (on one of your worksheets)

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(no subject) [Sep. 21st, 2005|08:52 pm]
THE GONZO JOURNALS

CHAPTER ONE RELIGION TEST: JUSTICE

 

Disclaimer: I am in period 5— our class never reviewed Sudan, therefore Herrick has agreed not to add that on our test. So, basically I don’t know anything about Sudan, sorry.

 

  • Discipleship
  • Jesus’ Ministry & Map of Holy Land
  • Church’s Social Mission – Charity vs. Justice
  • Old Testament Justice
  • Sermon on the Mount/The Kingdom
  • Bible Justice vs. Western Justice
  • Volunteer or Disciple? Comparison.
  • Social Sin
  • Themes of Catholic Social Teaching (the group project where did the 7 stations)
  • Vocab Terms
  • What a scribe, facilitator, cheerleader, timekeeper, and troubleshooter does.
  • Direct Service vs. Social Action
  • Power of One film
  • Types of Poverty
  • Corporal Works of Mercy
  • Beatitudes

 

 

Discipleship

 

Disciple (verb): to teach [English word discipline derived]

Disciple (noun): a learner

Discipleship~ Eastern way of teaching.

 

Generally disciples would approach a person who possessed wisdom and request to be under their guide so as to gain their greatness. They would eventually move in and learn the master’s way, trying to become a “carbon copy” of them. A disciple learns how their masters deal with emotions, treat others, and incorporate their beliefs into practices. While at the same time the disciple would care for the master, providing all their physical needs.

 

Jesus did not create this way of teaching! Instead, Jesus would call on people to become his disciple. He told his disciple “Your kingdom come, thy will be done, on earth as it is in heaven.”

 

John the Baptist had disciples.

 

The lives of Christians should be charitable, loving, forgiving, and serving.

 

Jesus’ Ministry & Map of Holy Land

 

KNOW THE MAP AND CITY LOCATIONS pg 7

 

Jesus lived in Galilee most of his life, where he ministered in a charitable way- helping others and being with outcasts.

 

Jesus’ ministry in Jerusalem [he visited there 3 times] was different— he confronted the social injustices. 

 

Church’s Social Mission – Charity vs. Justice

 

Charity

-         direct service

-         needs of people

-         wins praise

-         results seen immediately

-         tries to bring people to their normal circumstances

-         need usually comes from unforeseen disasters like a flood

-         Deals with the effects of problems

 

Justice

-         social action

-         concerned with society’s attitude

-         deals with causes of problems

-         historical roots

-         long term effort of strategizing

-         controversial

 

EXAMPLE FOR BOTH CHARITY AND JUSTICE: Archbishop Oscar Romero of El Salvador.

 

*Pope John XXIII wrote in Pacem in Terris (Peace on Earth): Charity and Justice are two things that must be met together.

 

Groups that work for Justice: National Guard, Green Party, WP [Women for Peace], Food not Bombs, NAACP.

 

Groups that work for Charity: Ronald McDonald, Red Cross, Catholic Worker, AIDS foundation, Big Brothers and Sister USA, Boys and Girls Club.

 

Old Testament Justice

 

Justice reveals the heart of God. In the psalms and prophetic books (Book of Isaiah) in the Old Testament there is expression for God’s concern for humanity.

 

Prophet means “one who calls”

 

True or False?  Prophets do not tell the future. TRUE

 

They spoke of the future so as to express a warning if people failed to change their unethical conduct.

 

Prophets condemned idolatry and injustice.

 

Luke 4:18-19, 21

Glad tiding to the poor- God’s loving plan of salvation gives hope to all humankind, because we are all poor.

Heal the brokenhearted- Life is hard, for Christians we are able to be continuously forgive by God.

Proclaim liberty to the captives- when we are stuck in one place because of fear or captivity, it is through Jesus we are set free.

Recovery of sight to the blind- we can blind in many ways to goodness and faith especially. It is important to not have spiritual blindness; Jesus would heal the blind and give them a spiritual awareness.

 

Sermon the Mount

 Jesus’ teaching –

Law: Jesus came to fulfill the Law not abolish it. We must learn it and live it and not teach those who sin.

 

Anger: Being angry with someone is like being a murderer, we must inflict judgment.

 

Adultery: those who lust are doing just as much as cheating, it is important to

completely remove that aspect from one’s heart.

 

Divorce: only if adultery is committed, divorce is permitted.

 

Oaths: do not swear to God; instead pray for His strength to tell the truth.

 

Retaliation: pray for your enemies

 

Almsgiving: do it secretly, do not be obnoxious and have it known.

 

Dependence of God: only love God and serve Him. No two masters

Fasting: do it in secrete, do not be obnoxious, think of it as a virtue.

 

The Lord’s Prayer: Prayer that asks for God’s mercy, help in avoiding evil, gratitude for God’s awesomeness, and thanksgiving.

 

Love your enemies: we are children of God, we should not hate anyone even if they are our enemies, instead we must pray for them.

 

The Kingdom

 

Jesus invited everlasting humanity into the Kingdom of God.

The Kingdom of Heaven will not reach a reality until Parousia (return of Christ)

 

The Reign of God – ongoing reality

 

Western Justice vs. Biblical Justice

 

 Western Justice

-         one country

-         impartial

-         blames the poor

-         upoholds personal property

-         stop conflict

-         no concern for environment

-         punishes criminals

-         poverty is a human condition

-         tries to reform

 

Biblical Justice [countercultural against society]

-         favors poor/criticizes wealthy

-         no distinctions between people

-         peace and solidarity

-         God’s power can change

-         Prevention of problems

-         Convert people to goodness

-         Radical social changes

-         Corrupt govt= poverty

-         communal dimension

 

Volunteer or Disciple

 

Mother Teresa “Express that love in action [towards poor people] is expressing our love for God”

 

She believes that doing social work just a means of “work” is wrong and must full of love for Christ.

 

Volunteer: individual, focus on work, superior bc of the good they are doing, seeks recognition, easy way out.

 

Disciple: relationship wise, God’s standards, what did I accomplish?, humility, risk taking.

 

Themes of Catholic Teaching

 

Life and Dignity of Human person: sacred human life, ever person is precious

 

Call to family, community, and participation: how we organizes our society must be in accord to human dignity and the capacity for individuals to grow. We must seek the poor and vulnerable- the well being of all.

 

Rights and Responsibilities: human rights must be protected- fundamental right to life.

 

Options for Poor and Vulnerable: the needs of the poor and vulnerable are first {Last Judgment}

 

Solidarity: love our neighbor- no ethnic racial divisions we are all brothers and sisters.

 

Dignity of Work and Rights of Workers: have the right of decent wages and unions- economy must serve its people.

 

Care for God’s creation: environmentally aware, clean living, recycling, picking up trash.

 

VOCABULARY

 

Disciple: to learn, be a learner

Justice: fairness or reasonableness, especially in the way people are treated or decisions are made---controversial, social attention, long tern effort.

Direct Service: immediate needs [soup kitchens, charity $, and candy strip workers)

Social Justice: awareness, direction service, help, cause of needs (Doctors without borders)

Charity: direct service, effects of problems, and wins praise

Prophet: religion somebody who interprets or passes on the will of a deity

Parousia: Return of Christ

Social sin: spans many generations, overwhelming problem, results from apathy, embodied in structures or institution, subtle and powerful

From Gandhi-

“politics without principles” “worship without sacrifice” “science without humanity” “education without character” “pleasure without conscience” “commerce without morality” “wealthy without work”  

 

**Know Corp. Works of Mercy

**Know types of poverty from worksheet

**know what your group members do, its extra credit questions.

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(no subject) [Sep. 21st, 2005|04:17 pm]
THE GONZO JOURNALS

be patient my loves, i will post a study guide ASAP [check around 6]

xo peace

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(no subject) [Sep. 7th, 2005|05:52 pm]
THE GONZO JOURNALS

French AP Quiz 9/9

 

Conjugate "Er" verbs

example: Manger [PRESENT TENSE]

Je mang   Nous mang(e)ons

Tu manges -  Vous mangez

elle/il mange - elles/ils mangent

[PAST TENSE]

J'ai mange -  nous avons manges

 tu as mange-  vous avez mange

elle/il a mange - elles/ils ont manges

-----------------------------------------------------------

(avoir: J'ai, tu as, elle/il a, nous avons, vous avez, ils/elles ont)

(etre: Je suis, tu es, elle/il est, nous sommes, vous etes, elles/ils sont)

------------------------------------------------------------

VOCAB/EXPRESSIONS

etre en colere- to be angry

plutot- rather

jusqu'a- up until

eh bien- good, well, okay

pour consequent- as a result of, consequence

*La fable: toujours des animaux ou plantes qui peuvent parler

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(no subject) [Sep. 5th, 2005|05:33 pm]
THE GONZO JOURNALS

Current Events Quiz American Govt. Ludin

September 6/2005

  • Hurricane Katrina CATAGORY 5 HURRICANE^ [devestated Louisiana-New Orleans, Mississippi-Bilioxi, and Alabama-Mobile] [New Orleans' extensive levee system broke as waters rose, spilling volumes of water from Lake Pontchartrain into the heart of the city][levee: a barrier built alongside a river to prevent high water from flooding the surrounding land] [Mayor of New Orleans: Ray Nagin ] [Federal Organization that was late for relief: FEMA Federal Emergency Managment Agency] [President Bush sent "John Wayne" type Lt. Gen. Russel Honore who is working hard in relief] [Red Cross, National Guard, and FEMA are helping in aid] [Texas, Georgia, and Arizona are sheltering survivors of Katrina] [Former president Bush and Clinton are setting up a relief fund] [Those who are refusing help from aid workers are labeled as "straglers"]
  • Chief Justice Rehnquist died of Thyroid cancer
  • President G.W Bush nominates John Roberts to replace Rehnquist as Chief Justice, his confirmation hearings will be this thursday or the following monday. G.W Bush will also nominate another person to fill Sandra Day O'Connor's seat as well in the following days ahead.
  • Football Player Jerry Rice retires.
  • Gas prices rise
  • Indonisian place crashes
*also this may or may not be included: - the planet Saturn has had substantial change in its orbiting rings - US Tennis Open sees Agassi on top winning -OH! BIG NEWS JUST NOW: THE LEVEE'S HAVE BEEN REPAIRED, BY SAND BAGS AND DIRT.
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1984 Part I,II [Jul. 30th, 2005|02:07 pm]
THE GONZO JOURNALS

* If you have not read or begun to read 1984 for the summer, i suggest you do- this is not some book you can just rely on internet notes for!

CHAPTER SUMMARIES WITH NOTES

PART I

CHAPTERS 1 - 2

Summary

The first two chapters of the novel give a vivid description of the state of Oceania under an authoritarian, single-party rule. The main character, Winston Smith, is living in what used to be called London before the Revolution. It is clear to the reader that he is not supportive of the totalitarian government of Oceania.

In Chapters 1 and 2, Winston Smith is shown struggling to write a diary away from the prying eyes of the telescreen installed in his flat. He reminisces about the incident that has occurred in the Ministry of Truth, where Winston works in the records department. That morning, during the 2-minute hate session, Winston sees O'Brien, one of the top officials of the Inner Party. While everyone during the hate session was shouting and screaming at Goldstein, the enemy and traitor to Oceania, Winston pauses for a moment and turns. For perhaps a second or two, his eyes meet with O'Brien's. Something in O'Brien's eyes makes Winston think that, like him, O'Brien is not a loyal party member.

While writing his diary, Winston is suddenly interrupted by his neighbor, Mrs. Parsons, who asks him to help her fix a pipe in her kitchen. Relieved that it was not the police, Winston goes over to the Parsons' flat, which is dirty and smelly. While leaving their flat, Winston is struck with a catapult by the Parsons' youngest son; he also accuses Winston of being a traitor. This makes Winston rather uneasy and he wonders if he is really safe from the thought police.

Notes

The novel opens with a description of the futuristic society of Oceania. It is a highly mechanized, unemotional state that is ruled by the iron hand of a single party dictatorship. Life in Oceania is not pleasant. The physical deprivation and the bomb attacks on the city where Winston lives bring to mind images of Soviet society and war-torn Britain. There are shortages of essential items, such as food, clothing, and razor blades, all of which have to be rationed, just as in Soviet society and war- torn Britain.

Winston Smith represents the loneliness and alienation of the individual in a monstrous society ruled by machines and telescreens, which govern every single aspect of life. It is a society that denies friendship, companionship, love, trust, and family ties. It is also a society where no one is allowed to think against or question the Ruling Party. Neighbors and children are taught to spy on others and report any improper behavior to the authorities. It is significant to note in Chapter 2 that the Parsons' youngest child attacks Winston and accuses him of being a traitor. Even the smallest children are brainwashed

Since he cannot express himself openly in this society, Winston's diary becomes a medium in which he can pour out his innermost feelings against Oceania; but he must hide his writing from the telescreen, or the diary will be confiscated and destroyed and Winston will be punished. Having spent his childhood during the days preceding the revolution, Winston looks back in nostalgically. He knows that those days were different, "a time when thought is free, where men are different from one another and do not live alone." Winston longs for such freedom again.

Winston works at The Ministry of Truth, a branch of the government whose name is totally ironic; it is the propaganda machine of the party. It is here that facts, information, and the past are altered to fit the ideas of the Party. If needed, people, places, and events are simply erased permanently. It is obvious that the party wants to maintain control over the masses through both physical force and mind control.

Even in these first two chapters, it is obvious that Winston is not a supporter of the politics or practices of the Ruling Party. He hates being monitored by the telescreen, resents being hit and called a traitor by the young Parson child, and dislikes the human anonymity in which he lives at home and at work. He also believes that O'Brien, a government official, is really not a loyal party member, just like him; that is why Winston identifies with him. It is important to note O'Brien's name. First, no first name is given; as an important member of the Inner Party, he does not need one. In addition, O'Brien is also an Irish name. Perhaps Orwell has chosen it to show the truly classless nature of this society or to reflect some personal feeling about the Irish, since this is the man who will betray and torture his protagonist.

Winston knows that he would be punished, probably killed, for his "thoughtcrimes" if they were suspected or detected. At this point in the novel, however, he believes that no suspicion is cast upon him. Winston is wrong in this judgment, as he will often be in the novel.

CHAPTER 3

Summary

In Chapter 3, Winston is asleep, dreaming about his mother. He sees his mother and a baby sister sinking into a dark hole, probably a well. They are looking up at him while he stands there watching. Winston's mother had disappeared when he was just 10 or 11 years old, but he has often dreamed of her. Next he dreams about a dark-haired girl in a beautiful countryside. In the dream, the dark-haired girl from his office throws her clothes aside and walks towards him. Her nakedness does not evoke any desire in him. Instead, what overwhelms him is the gesture. By her taking off her clothes, the girl seems to have destroyed the authority and control of the party. His dream is interrupted by the shrill whistle from the telescreen. It is the alarm to wake all office workers, which is sounded at 7:15 a.m. everyday. Winston drags himself out of his bed, totally naked, since he cannot afford pajamas. Each member of the Party receives only 3,000 coupons annually for clothes; a suit of pajamas costs 600 coupons. Winston can do without them.

Winston is in a bad shape physically, suffering from vericose ulcer. Each morning he wakes up with a violent coughing fit. This morning is no different, and for a few minutes, he is doubled up on his bed, coughing till he grasps for breath.

The telescreen calls everyone between the ages of 30 and 40 to get ready for the daily exercise workout. Winston is forced to get out of bed and join the exercise. Dressed in shorts and singlet, he wears an expression of grim enjoyment on his face, despite the pain in his chest.

 

 

During the 'physical jerks,' he thinks about Oceania's current war with Eurasia. The party says that Eurasia has never been an ally of Oceania, but Winston recalls that about four years ago, Eurasia was, indeed, recognized as an ally. He also realizes that he is probably one of the only ones who remember the fact, for everybody is expected to accept whatever the party says or claims and forget everything else. It is also impossible to prove history since all written records are altered to the Party's liking.

Notes

In this chapter, more is learned about the protagonist. Winston suffers from vericose ulcer, a condition that often makes him feel terrible and gasp for breath. His mother disappeared when he was a young boy of 10 or 11, but he still dreams about her. It is a recurring nightmare that disturbs Winston again later in the story. After he has the dream, Winston always feels that he is in some way responsible for her death.

Winston also dreams about a nameless girl in his office, who sheds her clothes in the dream, in defiance of the government. Winston is subconsciously searching for a female companion who will dare to defy the Party with him. Ironically, the girl in his dreams is Julia, his lover later in the novel. Their companionship and lovemaking will be in direct defiance of government orders. It is important to note that at this point in the novel, Winston believes that his nameless worker is in reality a member of the Thought Police. Obviously, he judges her incorrectly, just as he judged O'Brien incorrectly in the earlier chapter. In this totalitarian state, one can never know or trust the surrounding people.

The depth of control of the government is also depicted in this chapter. The Ruling Party rations the necessities of life, and they establish prices as well. Winston, like other Party workers, receives only 3000 coupons per year for clothing, and a pair of pajamas costs 600 coupons, or 1/5 of the year's clothing allowance. Each morning at 7:15 the telescreen screeches a whistle to wake all government workers. After quickly emerging from bed, they must participate in an exercise program directed by Big Brother via the telescreen. Everyone is expected to put on a show of pretending to enjoy the daily workout; if a person refuses to smile, the thought police will grow suspicious of him. After the grueling exercise program, the workers must go to the job prescribed by the government. Winston's job at the Ministry of Truth involves altering recorded history and government documents as Big Brother directs.

 

CHAPTER 4

Summary

Chapter 4 gives a detailed description of the work that Winston performs at the Ministry of Truth. His work, though extremely creative, is to falsify all historical facts to suit the party's interests. His routine work requires him to regularly make changes in the five year plan and in the forecasts on production, to match the actual production taking place. Winston also makes changes in the speeches made by Big Brother and creates imaginary people, while erasing the names of people who had once lived but were 'vaporised' or killed by the party. All this is done to maintain the interests and reputation of the Ruling Party.

notes

Winston's work is described in detail. He is bothered by the dishonesty of his work. He also dislikes its impersonal nature; he does not even know the names of many of his co-workers. People do not want to get to know other people, for everyone fears the person next to them is a hidden member of the Thought Police, who is eager to report a betrayal. Like Winston, his co-workers are plain and ordinary in appearance. They are a stark contrast to the beautiful people on the telescreen who constantly speak the propaganda of the Party. Like modern television advertising, the televised salesmanship of the government is very effective; therefore, Orwell is making a harsh criticism of all types of propaganda.

 

CHAPTERS 5 - 6

Summary

In these two chapters, Winston is shown trying to curb his natural instincts. He is relieved only when he goes to a prostitute. In chapter 5, the reader is introduced to Syme, who is working at the Ministry of Truth on the eleventh edition of the Newspeak dictionary. Syme meets Winston in the staff canteen, and they discuss the finer points of the new language, Newspeak, over lunch. Syme tells Winston that the new language has less words than the old language, for the Party has banned all the words that it thought not acceptable. Words like sex or words to express feelings have been eliminated.

The Party looks down upon sex. The process of reproduction is accomplished through artificial insemination or 'art sem' as it is called in the new language. Married couples are allowed to have sex, but it has become an act without joy. Winston's recollections of his wife, who does not live with him anymore, bring back painful memories of his attempts to make love to her; he always felt as though he was having sex with a skeleton. His wife, like all other women in the new society, has been taught from her teens that sex and sexual desire is dirty; therefore, her reaction to any kind of physical overture is to stiffen up. She also fears that Big Brother is always watching via the telescreen.

 

 

Notes

The Party's disapproval and guidelines on sexual matters is a reflection of its desire to have total control over the private lives of all individuals. Winston suffers from his natural sexual drive, which he cannot satisfy due to the restrictions of the state. He has recurring sexual dreams of the dark-haired girl who works in the fiction department of the Ministry of Truth; but at this point in the novel, he has no interaction with her. Instead, he satisfies his sexual drive through a prostitute. In the end, his sexual drives lead to his downfall.

Though Syme makes a brief appearance, Winston's attitude towards Syme and Syme's nature are extremely significant. Syme delivers a speech to Winston about Newspeak, the language of the new society; through Newspeak, the Party hopes to further control the populace and eliminate thoughtcrimes. The fact that Winston is scared to describe Syme as his friend, but someone he likes to talk to, serves to heighten the feeling of loneliness of the individual shorn of all affection and human bonds. Secondly, the nature of Syme and his blunt, tactless, and jocular remarks about Parsons, make Winston rather uneasy. Orwell implies that the party expects a certain kind of behavior from the members of the party, and any deviation from it is monitored and registered as a crime against the party. Winston's uneasiness, therefore, has a basis, for he is sure that, sooner or later, Syme will be put to death for his sharp tongue. Winston does not want to be implicated because he is recognized as Syme's friend.

 

CHAPTERS 7 - 8

Summary

Winston is still writing his diary secretly. He continues to contemplate the society created by the Party. The more he thinks about the encroachment on individual freedom, the lack of privacy, the loneliness, and the deliberate alteration of the past, the more he wonders if there is a way of overthrowing or weakening the Party.

The Party, through its massive propaganda machinery, spreads the idea that life in the new society is much better than it was before the revolution. In reality, the condition of the masses is bad. There is a scarcity of essential items, poorly paid jobs, and the overpowering smell of garbage everywhere. Yet, in Chapter 8, as Winston walks around in the dark streets where the 'proles' or the working class lives, he sees for himself that freedom, individual freedom and the human bonds of family, love, and affection, still remain intact.

Winston is convinced that if there is any hope for the future generation, it lies in the Proles. If they are made conscious, their collective strength can overthrow the Party. But what disturbs Winston is that due to the constant bombardment from the propaganda machinery, all memories, records, and details of life before the revolution are being erased. The propaganda is so pervasive that when the party claims that airplanes have been invented after the revolution, everyone accepts it. Though Winston knows how this lie is being spun and is accepted as the truth, he is unable to understand the motive behind it.

Notes

Through a subtle play of images, the depiction of the ambiance through sounds, smell, and color, the author draws sharp contrasts between the lives led by the Party members and the 'proles'. The contrasts only serve to further heighten the feeling of alienation of the individual from society. Moreover, the Party Ingsoc's slogan, animals and proles are free, reveal the Party's contempt for the proles. This fact is ironic because the Party has come to power to serve the interests of the proletariat. Besides, it also shows the Party's attitude towards freedom. Freedom of thought is a basic and natural right of all human beings that the Party is denying its members. In fact, the concept of freedom in the new society is turned to its opposite, where freedom is slavery.

Winston shows a great deal of naiveté in thinking that the proles may some day revolt against the Party. A revolution takes strong leadership, and the Party squelches any hint of leadership before it is allowed to develop.

It is important to realize that at the end of Part I, Winston has been created as a normal, sane man in terms of contemporary thinking. But in the world depicted in 1984, he is not normal or sane. His way of thinking is considered a thought crime and not appropriate to the world of Big Brother. He is concerned about history, curious about truth and life, and driven by sexual desires, all of which are unacceptable to Party practices. Because of his thoughts, Winston knows that he is different than almost all others in the state of Oceania; as a result, he feels an extreme sense of loneliness and isolation. Orwell has totally prepared the reader for the action that takes place in Part II and Part III of the book.

 

PART II

CHAPTERS 1 - 4

Summary

These chapters describe the love that blossoms between Julia and Winston. It happens quite suddenly. One day while walking in the corridor of the Ministry of Truth, Winston meets the dark-haired girl of his dreams. The girl stumbles, and as Winston tries to help her, she thrusts a note in his hand and walks away without a word. When he returns to his cubicle, Winston hides the note between some other papers so it will not be seen by prying eyes or screens. He then cautiously reads the contents of the note. In large handwriting, he finds three words, "I love you." Winston can hardly believe his eyes.

After several failed attempts, Winston finally meets the girl in a crowded street, where she asks him to meet her at Paddington. To avoid suspicion, they travel by separate routes to the countryside. When they meet in Paddington, the girl leads Winston to a sheltered spot in the forest, where Winston learns more about her. Her name is Julia, and she is twenty-six years old. She has had several secret liaisons with other men, both young and old. Like Winston, she hates the party and its strict regulations.

Julia and Winston make love in the secret hideout. When they part, they leave separately. They continue to meet again, always at a different place, so as not to arouse suspicion. Each time, Julia does the planning and decides the location. After the intimacy of each meeting, Winston feels like a real human. The presence of Julia in his life has suddenly given Winston a reason to live; ironically, it also brings him closer to death.

Both Winston and Julia believe that they will soon be caught by the Thought Police, in spite of their extreme caution. In the meantime, they enjoy each other's company, relish the freedom they have stolen, and grow to care for each other.

Notes

Winston has considered the possibility in an earlier chapter that Julia is a member of the Thought Police. When she passes him the note, however, he accepts it at face value and does not even think it could be a possible trap. His sexual frustration is so high that he throws caution to the wind. Although Julia's advances are not instigated by the Party, the fact that Winston responds to her is his undoing. Because of his involvement with Julia, he is certain to be viewed as an enemy of the party and to be appropriately punished. The irony is that Winston, because of his involvement with Julia, feels hope again, but he has put himself into a hopeless situation.

It is important to realize the significance of the lovemaking scene in the woods. Everything in Part I of the book leads up to it, and everything in the rest of the book stems from it. The act of lovemaking between Winston and Julia becomes more that an emotional release for the two of them; it is a form of rebellion for them against the Party's limits on individual freedom.

Much is learned about the character of Julia in these chapters. The fact that she always takes the initiative to plan and decide a safe hiding place for both of them to meet reveals her practical mind. But she seems to exist only for the moment and the next sexual event in her life. She is portrayed as a physical woman who enjoys the pure animalistic side of living. She does not have the intellect or depth of thought that Winston possesses, but she definitely influences her lover. Though diametrically opposite by nature, both Julia and Winston enjoy each other's company.

Winston has been deprived of sex for many years, and even in his marriage, he found no sexual satisfaction. As a result, he is very immature about male-female relationships. He falls totally in love with Julia and begins to have an unrealistic view of his world because of his feelings for her. He looks into the glass paperweight and imagines it is a world where he and Julia can be safe and free from Party constraints. In the past, he has been very concerned about living cautiously, so he can stay alive. Now he is living in a dream world that is sure to bring his death.

 

CHAPTER 5

Summary

In this chapter Winston discovers that his friend Syme has suddenly disappeared, probably 'vaporised' by the Party as Winston has earlier predicted. Further, Winston discusses the workings of the Party with Julia. Though she is uninterested in the political views of the Party, she believes that if she follows all their small rules, she can easily break a bigger one from time to time. This is why she always puts on a show of participating in all the cultural activities of the Party. It is also why she believes she can break the rules of sexual misconduct.

Unlike Winston, Julia is not disturbed about the Party's deliberate alteration and falsification of history and other facts. She accepts much of the propaganda, and even believes that Oceania has invented airplanes and has always been at war with Eurasia. In her practicality, her only concern is her immediate, personal freedom. Winston, on the other hand, is concerned about abstract ideas and dreams about a future that has freedom restored for everyone.

Notes

Syme's sudden disappearance is not unexpected. It only confirms Winston's fears that any one who deviates from the set standard of behavior expected by the Ingsoc will soon cease to exist.

In fact, the response or lack of any response from Syme's co- workers reveal that he no longer exists in their memories either.

 

 

Winston's discussions with Julia give the reader an insight into how they feel different about the Party. Julia is far more realistic and clear about the motives behind the intellectual suppression. Perhaps it is because Julia is apathetic to the political views of the party that she is also able to cope with and survive better than Winston can in the new society. For Julia, Party rules and restrictions are cumbersome only if they affect her personally. For Winston, the inner workings of Ingsoc are a threat not only to him but also to future generations.

It is important to note that at this point in the novel, Julia and Winston, although rebelling against the sexual restrictions imposed by the Party, are really ordinary people, satisfying ordinary needs. The more time they spend together, the more they act like a typical husband and wife; she handles the practical domestic matters, while Winston ponders weightier issues related to the Party. The main desire is simply to be left alone to live out their lives as they choose. In Oceania, however, that will never happen.

CHAPTER 6 - 8

Summary

In these few, short chapters, O'Brien invites Winston to his flat, under the pretext of giving him the latest edition of the Newspeak dictionary. The invitation makes Winston all the more sure that O'Brien, the inner party member, belongs to Brotherhood, the secret organization working against the Party. In this image, he sees in O'Brien a ray of hope for the future.

Julia and Winston meet regularly above Mr.Charrington's shop, which sells secondhand goods and odds and ends. It is located on a dark street in the part of the city where the proles reside. Confident that there are no telescreens here, Julia and Winston make it their permanent hiding place.

In Chapter 7, while sleeping next to Julia on the double bed above Mr.Charrington's shop, Winston wakes up with tears in his eyes. He has had another dream of his childhood where he again watches his mother and his baby sister being sucked into something dark.

In Chapter 8, both Julia and Winston meet O'Brien at his luxurious flat. He tells them about the Brotherhood and initiates them into the group. During their meeting with O'Brien, Julia and Winston promise to lie, cheat, sabotage, kill, and everything possible to weaken Ingsoc.

Julia and Winston leave O'Brien's flat separately. Before Winston leaves, O'Brien informs him that the black book containing the principles of the Brotherhood will be sent to him secretly.

Notes

Orwell's ability to use color as well as to create an ambiance is evident once again in the chapter where Winston and Julia meet O'Brien at his luxurious flat. Orwell describes the carpet, the clear white walls, the good quality cigarettes, and the wine which Julia and Winston drink. This description suggests that the Inner Party members are the privileged few in the new society; as a result, Ingsoc's claims that they have created a classless society is only a myth. The clothing also indicates the Party hierarchy. Julia and Winston wear blue, while O'Brien always wears a uniform of black overalls to show he is part of the Inner Party. His black uniform brings to mind the 'black shirts' of the party of the Italian dictator, Mussolini.

It is important to notice, once again, how casually Winston accepts O'Brien's invitation. In the past he has questioned everything and everyone, sure that the Party is trying to entrap him. Now he goes to O'Brien's house and is totally duped by this Inner Party member, who is soon to betray Winston and Julia. Because of his love for Julia, Winston has let down his guard. He also fools himself into believing that no matter what the Party does to him physically, his inner feelings can never be altered or controlled. In other ways, however, he has not changed. Winston's recurring dream about his mother shows that he remains guilt ridden; he still believes that he is somehow indirectly responsible for her death.

 

CHAPTERS 9 - 10

Summary

It is the end of the week-long celebration of hate. The targets of this celebration are all those who the Ingsoc claims to be traitors or a threat to the state of Oceania. After the celebration, really a mass frenzy against the traitors and the constant singing of the hate song, Winston goes to the secret hideout with the black book containing Goldstein's principles for the Brotherhood. He reads first few chapters aloud to Julia. In these chapters, there is a description of how the superstates of Oceania, Eurasia, and East Asia were created. The relationship between these three states and the purposes of constant war are also explained. Winston stops reading when he realizes that Julia has fallen asleep. For some time, Winston is contented lying peacefully next to Julia; then he also falls asleep.

Julia and Winston both wake up and stand at the window holding each other and listening to a fat woman singing a popular love song. While still at the window, a voice from somewhere behind them orders them to freeze. The Thought Police surround the entire shop, and both Julia and Winston are arrested. To Winston's shock, the old man who owns the shop, Mr. Charrington, turns out to be in the Thought Police.

Notes

The 'Book' in the novel is a parody on Leon Trotsky's The Revolution Betrayed. In fact the traitorous Goldstein, who has supposedly written the black book, is even described as looking like Trotsky. The book gives Winston new insights into how Ingsoc retains its power through changing the facts of history and controlling the minds of people. It also shows how the Party creates whatever reality it chooses. Winston agrees with the ideas in the book; but he still does not learn about the motive of the Party.

Orwell has prepared the reader for the arrest of the couple in an ironic way. Winston has just been reading the supposed Black Book of the Brotherhood to Julia. It has been given to him by O'Brien, whom Winston has naively and uncharacteristically trusted, just as he has trusted Charrington. He has gained a few new insights from the book, but Julia has fallen asleep while he read to her. As always, she has no interest in political views. Feeling relaxed, secure, and content, Winston decides to sleep beside his lover. When they wake, they stand in an embrace at the window, not fearing discovery in this proletariat part of town. Then in this moment of pure contentment, Big Brother calls out to them. Julia and Winston have been set up every step of the way, from Charrington to O'Brien.

At the time of their arrests, the glass paper weight is appropriately smashed to pieces. It has been Winston's idealistic symbol of freedom for Julia and himself. Like the paperweight, Winston's dreams have suddenly been shattered against the harsh reality of the Party. Julia virtually vanishes from the story after her arrest, and Part III concentrates on Winston's confrontation with O'Brien.

 

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